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Chelsea Bullock

The Colour, Symbol, Image routine’s core purpose is to enhance students’ comprehension, synthesis, and organisation of ideas in activities that involve the reading of, writing of, and listening to a text through the identification of the essence of key words and ideas.

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The routine -which was developed as part of Harvard Project Zero, includes three key steps to build understanding: choosing a representative colour, a representative symbol, and a representative image. The routine is flexible to work across a range of subject areas and is easily implemented for use with students of a range of ages.

To implement the Colour…


The Design Thinking Process is a process for students to follow to enhance their understanding of the users or audience of a certain product or service, to challenge assumptions of those people, to redefine a problem to demonstrate their deep understanding of it, to create innovative solutions to that problem and to test those solutions in order to evaluate the effectiveness of a solution.

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Throughout the process, students retain a core focus on the users or audience of a product and develop a deep understanding of problem solving to meet the needs of others, instead of satisfying their own personal…


Peer instruction is a structure teaching technique that allows students to examine their own and their colleagues reactions to a concept question.

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The process of reviewing one’s answer and compare it to others contributes significantly to the student learning as well as their engagement (Mazur 2012).

How does it work?

  1. Students individually consider the concept question and are allowed to take some time to ponder a response from a preselected set of answer options -or can add their own (see “Question” activity).
  2. Students work in a small group (3–4) to discuss their individual answers to the question and to arrive at consensus on the…

Teaching using dilemmas can help students gain previously unseen perspectives, engage them in fruitful discussions and teach them a lot about different outlooks -but more importantly to empathise with others.

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Recently, I came across these Digital Dilemmas from Project Zero and use one these dilemmas -related to COVID-19 and education, that I thought it was currently relevant and students could easily relate to.

“Social Distance”

This digital dilemma presents an scenario of a group of students that when they found out that their school would be closed for three weeks due to the COVID-19 pandemic, were psyched and proceed to approach this…


The 3–2–1 bridge thinking routine is an effective tool for students to identify changes to their thinking across a learning task, lesson or project.

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There are three core components to the strategy; reflection on initial thinking, reflection on new thinking and consideration of how thinking has changed or developed.

The 3–2–1 Bridge strategy is flexible and can easily be used with a wide range of subjects and learning experiences.

How does 3–2–1 Bridge work?

To begin, the students are asked to use the 3–2–1 thinking process based on their current knowledge and understanding. At this stage, the students must think of 3 thoughts and ideas…


Lecturers at Athlone Institute of Technology (AIT) in Ireland have been using Team-Based Learning with LAMS to teach coding.

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Students usually would be given an exercise to write code a set of functions in Python.

While lecturers were able to use essays questions for students to answer the coding exercises, the lack of proper coding syntax was rather frustrating for students and teaching alike.

Therefore, we collaborated with Cormac McClean from AIT to create a proper integrated development environment (IDE) so students could write proper code with syntax and code correction.


Mark hedging questions are a type of question in which students rather than selecting a single best answer, can spread or split the marks across all options available.

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While LAMS has implemented mark hedging in TBL as part of a research project in 2014 with the Engineering and Medical faculties at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (see paper Byunhoon, Lee; Hock Guan, Ong; Redante Delizo, Mendoza), it has been — somewhat overlooked.

However, recently we reintroduce it to lecturers and they are willing to try the mark hedging question types as part of their TBL lessons.

Thus, LAMS is now making…


Mark hedging questions are essentially MCQ question (Single best answer questions). The main difference is that when the question is rendered to the students, in the MCQ case, students are to select one single answer. Whereas for Mark hedging questions, students can split or distribute the marks across the available answers.

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In the traditional MCQ, students in the iRAT are to select only one possible answer:


Though not an explicit part of the Team-Based Learning process, for activities to be performed in teams (tRAT and AEs), a team leader or team representative is to be selected to answer the questions on behalf of the team.

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In LAMS, we dedicate a full activity to leader selection where students within a team get to decide and self-appoint a leader. We believe this is important because the leader is not just a mere team scribe, but should have a significant role in ensuring that everyone’s views are taken into account and encourage team consensus and participation.

While up until…


When using the Team-Based Learning strategy, it is important to assess whether the students are ready for solving real-world problems in the Application Exercises. To ascertain the students’ preparedness, you need to be able to discern and interpret the readiness assurance process (RAP) results.

Photo by Carlos Muza on Unsplash

To dissect the RAP results effectively, we have now create a new dashboard to help teachers analyse the iRAT and tRAT results in the context of the lessonby providing a set of charts and tables with quick insights on the students and teams’ performance in real-time.

Chelsea Bullock

I’m a Communication Manager and Outreach Officer at LAMS (Learning Designer App).

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